臨床理論認為過動與注意力不集中症ADHD起因於腦部強化系統不正常. 以心跳變化及HRVLF(0.04-0.08Hz)作為強化系統訊號發現兒童8-12歲患有ADHD其心率反應較正常者低,且其HRV會因回饋行為賞罰而降低(而正常者不會)

Heart rate and reinforcement sensitivity in ADHD.

Luman M, Oosterlaan J, Hyde C, van Meel CS, Sergeant JA.

 

J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;48(9):890-8.

Source

Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12.

METHODS:

Heart rate responses (HRRs) following feedback and heart rate variability (HRV) in the low frequency band (.04-.08 Hz), a measure of mental effort, were calculated during a time production paradigm. Performance was coupled to monetary gain, loss or feedback-only in a cross-over design.

RESULTS:

Children with ADHD exhibited smaller HRRs to feedback compared to controls. HRV of children with ADHD decreased when performance was coupled to reward or response cost compared to feedback-only. HRV of controls was similar across conditions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Children with ADHD were characterised by (a) possible abnormalities in feedback monitoring and (b) motivational deficits, when no external reinforcement is present.

PMID:

17714374

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]