婦女經前症候群與女性荷爾蒙及自律神經等控制息息相關;睡眠研究發現快速眼睛移動期(REM)心跳與LF/HF較高而HF較低(相較於非快速眼睛移動期(NREM)),顯示此期間交感主; 黃體期比起濾泡期心跳較高,REMHF最低而黃體素最高(不管有無經前症候群); 無經前症候群的婦女在黃體期NREM HF也降低,但有經前症候群的婦女則不會; 無經前症候群的婦女在黃體期NREM 黃體素與HF成正比,LF/HF成反比,有經前症候群的婦女則無此關聯;以上觀察透露有經前症候群的婦女自律神經控制較差

Autonomic regulation across phases of the menstrual cycle and sleep stages in women with premenstrual syndrome and healthy controls.

Psychoneuroendocrinology.  2013; 38(11):2618-27 (ISSN: 1873-3360)

de Zambotti M; Nicholas CL; Colrain IM; Trinder JA; Baker FC
Human Sleep Research Program, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.

To investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the presence of severe premenstrual symptoms on cardiac autonomic control during sleep, we performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep in 12 women with severe premenstrual syndrome and 14 controls in the mid-follicular, mid-luteal, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate was higher, along with lower high frequency (HF) power, reflecting reduced vagal activity, and a higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency power, reflecting a shift to sympathetic dominance, in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep in both groups of women. Both groups of women had higher heart rate during NREM and REM sleep in the luteal phase recordings compared with the mid-follicular phase. HF power in REM sleep was lowest in the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone was highest, in both groups of women. The mid-luteal phase reduction in HF power was also evident in NREM sleep in control women but not in women with PMS, suggesting some impact of premenstrual syndrome on autonomic responses to the hormone environment of the mid-luteal phase. In addition, mid-luteal phase progesterone levels correlated positively with HF power and negatively with LF/HF ratio in control women in NREM sleep and with the LF/HF ratio during REM sleep in both groups of women. Our findings suggest the involvement of female reproductive steroids in cardiac autonomic control during sleep in women with and without premenstrual syndrome.